en: A short article on the Fiqh of Hayd (Hanafi)

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en: A short article on the Fiqh of Hayd (Hanafi)

Postby nur.nu » 30 Jan 2012, 08:26

http://data.nur.nu/Articles/Hanafi_Fiqh ... rticle.pdf

A short article on the Fiqh of Hayd (Menstruation) according to the Hanafi Madhab
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim,
I seek refuge from Shaytan and ask Allah to forgive me.

Introduction
This article will give the reader a very basic understanding of issues relating to female
menstruation.
Section 1 outlines the basic rules.
Section 2 refers to rules of Hayd.
Section 3 refers to rules of Istihada.
Section 4 refers to the Shafi’i opinion.

Section 1

What is Hayd?
The Arabic term Hayd is known as menstruation, or commonly known as the
woman’s monthly period.

What is Istihada?
This word is used for any bleeding that is not considered menstruation. It is the
irregular bleeding a woman may suffer outside her menstrual cycle.
Bleeding less than 3 days
If bleeding is less than 3 days, this is considered Istihada. This is because a minimum
of 3 days is required for bleeding to be considered Hayd (menstruation).
Bleeding over 10 days
If bleeding exceeds 10 days then this is considered Istihada. This is because for
bleeding to be considered menstruation it must be up to or less than 10 days.
A woman who has a regular menstrual cycle.
If a female, whether a virgin or non-virgin has a regular menstrual cycle, that is, she
knows she bleeds the same number of days every month, she can use this to calculate
her cycle if it changes one month.
If her bleeding is up to 10 days, then despite her normal cycle days, the whole
bleeding is considered menstruation.
However, if her bleeding exceeds 10 days then any extra days over her “normal”
cycle are considered Istihada and she must make up prayers for these days missed.

Illustrative example:
Context: A woman has a regular cycle of 7 days bleeding each month.
Scenario 1:
This month the woman’s period is 9 days.
Solution:
According to the rules, because her period is less than 10 days, all her 9 days of
bleeding are considered menstruation (Hayd).
Scenario 2:
This month the woman’s period is 12 days.
Solution:
As her bleeding has exceeded 10 days she looks back to her regular cycle of the
previous month which shows 7 days. So then she counts days 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 as
Istihada (irregular bleeding).
When she realises on day 11 that her bleeding has exceeded 10 days, and that 8,9,10
have become Istihada she must make ghusl as her period has ended and make up the
prayers for day 8, 9 and 10 and continue praying as normal, day 11 onwards.

Section 2
Rules of menstruation
A woman on her periods cannot:
Pray, fast, enter the mosque, circumbulate the Ka’bah, have intercourse with her
husband, recite the Quran, or hold the Quran without a covering.
Once she stops bleeding she must make ghusl (full shower covering every part of the
body and hair to the roots including nasal passages, mouth and any piercing holes) so
she may resume her prayer.
If there is a break in the days of bleeding within the period of menstruation, it is
counted as continual flow of blood.
The minimum time between periods is 15 days of purity. After the menstruation has
ended, if bleeding occurs again in less than 15 days, it is considered Istihada.
A dark coloured discharge (which is not white) is considered blood.
The end of menstruation is marked by a white coloured discharge.

Fasting and Menstruation
A woman cannot fast while she is having her period.
If she is fasting and her period comes, her fast is broken. No matter what time of day
it is, even if it is one minute before magrib (iftar), it is still broken and she is no
longer fasting.
If a woman finishes her period during the day when she is not fasting (even if one
minute before maghrib) she must take ghusl and act like a fasting person until magrib
comes in, even though her fast will not be valid and she will have to make it up.
Once the woman has finished her period, she must make up all the fasts she has
missed due to her menstruation.

Section 3
Rules of Istihada
A woman in istihada is like a person with a nose bleed. It does not prevent fasting,
praying, or intercourse with her husband.
She must perform wudu (ablution) for each fard (obligatory) prayer but she can do as
much sunnah and nafl acts as she likes with that wudu until the time of the next prayer
comes in, and then she must re-do her wudu.
E.g. She makes wudu when the time of dhuhr comes in and with this she can do as
much ibadah as she likes, but when the time of asr comes in her wudu is broken and
she must make a new one for any ibadah.

Section 4
The Shafi’i school consider up to 15 days bleeding to be hayd and anything beyond
this is Istihada.
The minimum interval between two periods is 15 days.

Conclusion
This is a very basic article outlining the most important rules of menstruation.
Any mistakes are mine and not my references or teachers.
I ask the reader to remember me and my teachers in their precious Dua’a.

References
• Saheefa – Shaykh Muhammad bin Yahya Al Ninowy
• Al Hidaya – Burhan Al Din Al Marghanani
• Mukhtasar - Al Quduri
• Al Nawawi’s Manual of Islam
Author
Sister Nur Husayn-Johansson, London, July 2009

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Re: en: A short article on the Fiqh of Hayd (Hanafi)

Postby nur.nu » 30 Jan 2012, 15:00

Question:
The article says when your on istihada, you should make wudu in each prayer. What if the blood or color is not flowing outside after cleaning, so is my wudu valid? or can i pray with same wudu zuhr and asr, maghib and isha etc?

Answer:
salam sister - your wudu is valid for several prayers, if you are not bleeding, and nothing else breaks your wudu.

IN GENERAL: in istihaDa you follow the rulings of 'udhr (excuse) which are as follows:
1. establishing an excuse ('udhr): if you are bleeding the whole time between two prayer times, you have established an excuse. You then wait to pray until the time is almost up, then you do wudu (even though still bleeding) and pray just before the the mext prayer time begins
2. the excuse ('udhr) is valid as long as bleeding occurs at least once between two prayer times. While the excuse is valid, you do wudu only once at thte befinning of each new prayer time, and with that you perform as many ' badat as you wish.
3. The excuse ('udhr) terminates if bleeding did not occur between two prayer times. You then do wudu asl usual. If bleeding continues after that, a new instance of ('udhr) has to be established.

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