"Muslim är den för vars tunga och hand andra är säkra"

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"Muslim är den för vars tunga och hand andra är säkra"

Post by nur.nu »

"Muslim är den från vars tunga och hand andra muslimer är säkra"
dvs. muslim är den som inte skadar andra muslimer genom att förtala/baktala, ljuga, sprida rykten etc. dem eller genom andra handlingar. Observera att tungan nämns för handen, vilket indikerar att tungan ställer till med större skada än handen!
Hadithen finns bl.a. i Sahih al-Bukhari
Förklaring av Ibn Hajar al-´Asqalani

Chapter: The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe.

Adam Ibn Abi Eeyaas reported from Abdullah Ibn Abe As-Safar and Isma’el Ibn Abe Khalid narrated from Ash-Sha’be from Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar that he Prophet said, “The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe, and the emigrant (muhajir) is the one who abandons what Allah has forbidden.”

Ibn Hajar’s explanation

His saying, “The Muslim”

It has been said that the word ‘the’ (ال) indicates completeness (the complete Muslim), like saying ‘Zayd is the man’ meaning Zayd is the complete man.

-A follow up (question) arises as to whether the one who possesses this one characteristic (the characteristic mentioned in the narration) would be considered as being complete (a complete Muslim).

The answer would be that the one who possesses this characteristic while complying with the other pillars (is a complete Muslim). Al-Khattaabe said, “What is meant is the best of Muslims is the one who combines between fulfilling the rights of Allah and the rights of the Muslims.” It could mean that the characteristic of the Muslim that signifies his Islam is the Muslims being safe from his tongue and hand (the harm that comes from his tongue or hand). Another possibility is that it is an encouragement to perfect ones conduct with his lord; because if he perfects his conduct with his brothers[1] then all the more reason that he would perfect his conduct with his lord.

The mention of Muslims (avoids harming Muslims) is what applies in most situations because avoiding harming Muslims is strongly affirmed while the disbelievers have various situations, they are at times combated while other times harm cannot be brought to them.

The tongue was specified because it is the outlet to what is in the soul while the hand was specified because most actions are performed with it.

The hadith is general with regards to the tongue, encompassing statements made about the past, present, or future.

The hand normally affects the present time with the actions it performs. It may, however affect the past or future by way of writing which can carry an immense affect.

Using the hand to carry out a sentenced punishment or for due reprehension is excluded from the statement of the hadith.

His saying, “the muhajir”

The hijrah is two types: an apparent (type) and a hidden (type)

The hidden (hijrah) is the abandonment of what the misleading nafs (soul) and the shaytan (satan) call to.

The apparent (hijrah) is the fleeing with ones religion from trials.

It may be that the emigrants were addressed with this so that they wouldn’t solely rely on moving from one place to another in order to implement the orders of the Shariah and avoid it’s prohibitions.

Or it may be that this understanding of hijrah was presented after the discontinuation of the physical hijrah once Mecca was opened to Islam, to comfort the hearts of those who did not take part in the physical hijrah. Indeed, the reality of hijrah is obtained by the one who abandons what Allah has prohibited.

*Together these two meanings cover all of the wisdoms and rulings (included in hijrah).

Note: This is the first hadith recorded by Bukhari that was not also recorded by Muslim, although Muslim recorded its meaning from a different narration. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim added an authentic narration from Anas, “The Muslim is the one whom the people trust.” Ibn Hibban also recorded a narration stating, “The muhajir is the one who abandons sins, and the Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the people are safe.” What is meant by ‘the people’ in Ibn Hibban’s narration is the Muslims as was mentioned in the narration of this chapter, because in reality when the word ‘people’ is used in the general sense it refers to the Muslims. Any time a word is generalized it is interpreted to mean the best and most complete form of the word, and no person can be complete without Islam.

[1] the masculine word ‘brother’ encompasses brothers and sisters, as is the case with all ruling unless otherwise specified
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